3rd Grade Number Activities

This page provides samples of 3rd Number Activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards.  All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to  provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. All sample files are in PDF format
. Sample activities listed in blue are available for immediate download. Activities listed in **grey are available in our 3rd Grade Math Centers eBook.


Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division
3.OA.A.1 Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g. interpret 5 x 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 x 7.

Sample Activities:
Relate Addition and Multiplication
Array Picture Cards
** Building Arrays
** Equal Groups

Array Picture Cards

3.OA.A.2 Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g. interpret 56÷8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8.
Possible Activities:
Identify the Unknown

3.OA.A.3 Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g. by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
Sample Activities:
Word Problems: Arrays (Set 1)
** Word Problems: Arrays (Set 2)

** Word Problems: Equal Groups 
** Word Problems: Size of Equal Groups
** Word Problems: Number of Equal Groups
** Equal Rows in a Marching Band

** Sharing Marbles
Math Read Aloud Task Cards:
One Hundred Hungry Ants
Six Dinner Sid
Amanda Bean's Amazing Dream
The Doorbell Rang

3.OA.A.4 Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 x?=48, 5 = ?÷3, 6x6 =?
Sample Activities:

Missing Numbers: Division
** Missing Numbers: Multiplication

3rd Grade Number Read-Alouds

Multiplication Read Alouds
Multiplication Read Aloud
Multiplication Read Aloud
Division Read Aloud
Multiplication Read Aloud

Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division
3.OA.B.5 Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. Examples: If 6x4=24 is known then 4x6=24 is also known (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3x5x2 can be found by 3x5=15, then 15x2=30, or by 5x2=10, then 3x10=30 (Associative property of multiplication). Knowing that 8x5=40 and 8x2=16, one can find 8x7 as 8 x (5+2) = (8x5) + (8x2) = 40 +16 =56 (Distributive property).
Sample Activities:
Turn Your Array
Decompose a Factor (ver. 1)
* Decompose a Factor (ver. 2)

3.OA.B.6 Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when
multiplied by 8.

Sample Activities:
Division as an Unknown Factor (x5 & x10)
* Division as an Unknown Factor (x1 & x2)
* Division as an Unknown Factor (x3 & x6)
* Division as an Unknown Factor (x4 & x8)
* Division as an Unknown Factor (x7 & x9)

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Multiply and divide within 100
3.OA.C.7 Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8x5=40, one knows 40÷5=8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

** Multiplication Bump (x6 - x10)
** Multiples Game (x6 - x10)

** Multiplication Four in a Row (x3,4,5,6)
** Multiplication Four in a Row (x6,7,8,9)
** Multiples Look, Say, Cover, Write, Check
** Multiply It!
** Division Race 2 
(divisors 3,4,6)
** Division Race 3 
(divisors 7,8,9)
** Division Squares (divisors 3,6,9)
** Division Squares 
(divisors 4,7,8)
** Division Bump (divisors 2-10)
** Division Spin (divisors 2-10)

** Fill the Grid
** I Have ... Who Has? (x3 & x7
** I Have ... Who Has? (x4 & x6)
** I Have ... Who Has? (x4 & x10)
** I Have ... Who Has? (x6 & x8)
** I Have ... Who Has? (x7 & x9)

Good teaching is more a giving of right questions than a giving of right answers.

                       ~ Josef Albers

Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic
3.OA.D.8 Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.
Sample Activities:
Word Problems: Two-Step (Set 2)
Word Problems: Two-Step (Set 1)

3.OA.D.9 Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.

Sample Activities:
Roll a Rule (ver. 1)
Odd and Even Sums
Odd and Even Products
Patterns in the Multiplication Table
** Roll a Rule (ver. 2) 
** Create a Number Pattern (ver. 1)

** Create a Number Pattern (ver. 2)
** Patterns in the Addition Table
** Drawing Multiplication Patterns

Drawing Multiplication Patterns
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3rd Grade EBooks


Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic
3.NBT.A.1 Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.
Sample Activities:
Round to the Nearest Ten
Estimating Sums (ver. 1)
Estimating Differences (ver. 1)
** Round to the Nearest Hundred
** What's the Nearest Ten?
** What's the Nearest Hundred?
** Estimating Sums (ver. 2)
** Estimating Differences (ver. 2)

3.NBT.A.2 Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.
Sample Activities:
Close to Zero (3 Digit)
3 Digit Addition Split
** Doubling to 1000
** Add the Difference
** 3 Digit Subtraction Split

3.NBT.A.3 Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (e.g., 9x80, 5x60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.
Sample Activities:

Multiples of Ten Multiply
** Multiply One-Digit Numbers by Multiples of Ten


Develop understanding of fractions as numbers
3.NF.A.1 Understand a fraction 1/b as a quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is portioned into b equal parts: understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.

Possible Activities:
Making Fraction Strips (ver. 1)
My Fraction Bar Riddle
** Making Fraction Strips (ver. 2)
** Name the Fraction
** Cuisenaire Fractions
** Fraction Posters
Math Read Aloud Task Card:
Picture Pie  

3rd Grade Fractions Read Aloud
3rd Grade Fractions Read Aloud

3.NF.A.2 Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.
a. Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and portioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.
Sample Activities:
Fractions on a Number Line

b. Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.
Sample Activities:

Roll a Fraction

3.NF.A.3 Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.
a. Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.
Sample Activities:
Pizza for Dinner

b. Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions e.g.., ½ = 2/4, 4/6=2/3) Explain why the fractions are equivalent, by using a visual model.
Sample Activities:
Equivalent Fractions Exploration (ver. 1)
** Equivalent Fractions Exploration (ver. 2)
** Build Eight Hexagons

c. Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3=3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram
Sample Activity:
Make One Whole (ver. 1)
** Make One Whole (ver. 2)

d. Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or < and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

Sample Activities:
Compare Fractions of a Whole (ver. 1)

** Compare Fractions of a Whole (ver. 2)
Who Ate More? 

More 3rd Grade Number Resources

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