
3rd GRADE NUMBER ACTIVITIES: OPERATIONS AND ALGEBRAIC THINKING
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division
3.OA.A.1
Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g. interpret 5 x 7 as the total
number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a
context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 x 7.
Sample Activities:
Relate Addition and Multiplication
Array Picture Cards
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Building Arrays
** Equal Groups
3.OA.A.2
Interpret wholenumber quotients of whole numbers, e.g. interpret 56÷8
as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned
equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are
partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a
context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be
expressed as 56 ÷ 8.
Sample Activity:
Identify the Unknown
3.OA.A.3 Use
multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in
situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities,
e.g. by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown
number to represent the problem.
Sample Activities: 
3.OA.A.4 Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 x?=48, 5 = ?÷3, 6x6 =?
Sample Activity:
Missing Numbers: Division
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Missing Numbers: Multiplication
Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division
3.OA.B.5 Apply properties of operations as strategies to
multiply and divide. Examples: If 6x4=24 is known then 4x6=24 is also known
(Commutative property of multiplication.) 3x5x2 can be found by 3x5=15, then
15x2=30, or by 5x2=10, then 3x10=30 (Associative property of multiplication). Knowing
that 8x5=40 and 8x2=16, one can find 8x7 as 8 x (5+2) = (8x5) + (8x2) = 40 +16
=56 (Distributive property).
Sample Activities:
Turn Your Array
Decompose a Factor (ver. 1)
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Decompose a Factor (ver. 2)
3.OA.B.6
Understand division as an unknownfactor problem. For example, find 32 ÷
8 by finding the number that makes 32 when
multiplied by 8.
Sample Activity:
Division as an Unknown Factor (x5 & x10)
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Division as an Unknown Factor (x1 & x2)
** Division as an Unknown Factor (x3 & x6)
** Division as an Unknown Factor (x4 & x8)
** Division as an Unknown Factor (x7 & x9)
Good teaching is more a giving of right questions than a giving of right answers.
~ Josef Albers
Multiply and divide within 100
3.OA.C.7 Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8x5=40, one knows 40÷5=8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two onedigit numbers.
Sample Activities:
Domino Multiplication
Multiplication Bump (x2  x5)
Multiples Game (x2  x 5)
Multiplication Four in a Row (x1,2,5,10)
I Have ... Who Has? (x2 & x5)
I Have ... Who Has (x2 & x10)
I Have ... Who Has (x3 & x5)
Six Sticks
Division Race 1 (divisors 2, 5, 10)
Division Squares (divisors 2,5,10)
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Multiplication Bump (x6  x10)
** Multiples Game (x6  x10)
** Multiplication Four in a Row (x3,4,5,6)
** Multiplication Four in a Row (x6,7,8,9)
** Multiples Look, Say, Cover, Write, Check
** I Have ... Who Has? (x3 & x7)
** I Have ... Who Has? (x4 & x6)
** I Have ... Who Has? (x4 & x10)
** I Have ... Who Has? (x6 & x8)
** I Have ... Who Has? (x7 & x9)
** Multiply It!
** Fill the Grid
** Division Race 2 (divisors 3,4,6)
** Division Race 3 (divisors 7,8,9)
** Division Squares (divisors 3,6,9)
** Division Squares (divisors 4,7,8)
** Division Bump (divisors 210)
** Division Spin (divisors 210)
Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic
3.OA.D.8 Solve
twostep word problems using the four operations. Represent these
problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown
quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation
and estimation strategies including rounding.
Sample Activities:
Word Problems: TwoStep (Set 2)
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Word Problems: TwoStep (Set 1)
3.OA.D.9 Identify
arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or
multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations.
For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain
why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.
Sample Activities:
Roll a Rule (ver. 1)
Odd and Even Sums
Odd and Even Products
Patterns in the Multiplication Table
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Roll a Rule (ver. 2)
** Create a Number Pattern (ver. 1)
** Create a Number Pattern (ver. 2)
** Patterns in the Addition Table
** Drawing Multiplication Patterns
3rd GRADE NUMBER ACTIVITIES: NUMBER AND OPERATIONS IN BASE TEN
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic
3.NBT.A.1 Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.
Sample Activities:
Round to the Nearest Ten
Estimating Sums (ver. 1)
Estimating Differences (ver. 1)
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Round to the Nearest Hundred
** What's the Nearest Ten?
** What's the Nearest Hundred?
** Estimating Sums (ver. 2)
** Estimating Differences (ver. 2)
3.NBT.A.2 Fluently
add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between
addition and subtraction.
Sample Activities:
Close to Zero (3 Digit)
3 Digit Addition Split
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Doubling to 1000
** Add the Difference
** 3 Digit Subtraction Split
3.NBT.A.3 Multiply onedigit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the
range 1090 (e.g., 9x80, 5x60) using strategies based on place value
and properties of operations.
Sample Activities:
Multiples of Ten Multiply
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Multiply OneDigit Numbers by Multiples of Ten
3rd GRADE NUMBER ACTIVITIES: NUMBER AND OPERATIONS  FRACTIONS
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers
3.NF.A.1 Understand
a fraction 1/b as a quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is portioned
into b equal parts: understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by
a parts of size 1/b.
Possible Activities:
Making Fraction Strips (ver. 1)
My Fraction Bar Riddle
Math Read Aloud Task Card:
Picture Pie
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Making Fraction Strips (ver. 2)
** Name the Fraction
** Cuisenaire Fractions
** Fraction Posters
3.NF.A.2 Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.
a.
Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the
interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and portioning it into b equal parts.
Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part
based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.
Sample Activity:
Fractions on a Number Line
b.
Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a
lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b
and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.
Sample Activity:
Roll a Fraction
3.NF.A.3 Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.
a. Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.
Sample Activity:
Pizza for Dinner
b. Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions e.g.., ½ = 2/4,
4/6=2/3) Explain why the fractions are equivalent, by using a visual
model.
Sample Activities:
Equivalent Fractions Exploration (ver. 1)
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Equivalent Fractions Exploration (ver. 2)
** Build Eight Hexagons
c.
Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are
equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3=3/1;
recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number
line diagram
Sample Activity:
Make One Whole (ver. 1)
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Make One Whole (ver. 2)
d. Compare two fractions with the same numerator or
the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that
comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same
whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or
< and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction
model.
Sample Activity:
Compare Fractions of a Whole (ver. 1)
Also included in 3rd Grade Math Centers
** Compare Fractions of a Whole (ver. 2)
** Who Ate More?