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This page provides examples of 3rd Grade Number Activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in childfriendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 3rd Grade Number Activities listed are in PDF format and can be accessed using Adobe Reader. For more 3rd Grade math ideas click on the above eBook covers.
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division
3.OA1
Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g. interpret 5 x 7 as the total
number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a
context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 x 7.
Possible Activities:
Array Picture Cards

3.OA2
Interpret wholenumber quotients of whole numbers, e.g. interpret 56÷8
as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned
equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are
partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a
context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be
expressed as 56 ÷ 8.
Possible Activities:
Sharing or Grouping?
3.OA3 Use
multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in
situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities,
e.g. by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown
number to represent the problem.
3.OA4 Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or
division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine
the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations
8 x?=48, 5 = ?÷3, 6x6 =?
Possible Activities:
Missing Numbers (Multiplication)
What is the Missing Number? (Division)
Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division
3.OA5 Apply properties of operations as strategies to
multiply and divide. Examples: If 6x4=24 is known then 4x6=24 is also known
(Commutative property of multiplication.) 3x5x2 can be found by 3x5=15, then
15x2=30, or by 5x2=10, then 3x10=30 (Associative property of multiplication). Knowing
that 8x5=40 and 8x2=16, one can find 8x7 as 8 x (5+2) = (8x5) + (8x2) = 40 +16
=56 (Distributive property).
Possible Activities:
Split a Factor
Decompose a Factor
3.OA6
Understand division as an unknownfactor problem. For example, find 32 ÷
8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8.
Possible Activities:
Division as Unknown Factor Problems
Multiplication/Division Number Stories
Multiply and divide within 100
3.OA7 Fluently multiply
and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between
multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8x5=40, one knows
40÷5=8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from
memory all products of two onedigit numbers.
Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic
3.OA8 Solve
twostep word problems using the four operations. Represent these
problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown
quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation
and estimation strategies including rounding.
Possible Activities: 
3.OA9 Identify
arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or
multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations.
For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain
why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.
Possible Activities:
Odd and Even Sums
Odd and Even Products
Roll a Rule
Roll a Rule (2 Step)
Using Number Patterns to Describe Multiples
Increasing and Decreasing Number Patterns
Two Step Number Patterns
Patterns in the Addition Table
Patterns in the Multiplication Table
Drawing Multiplication Patterns
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic
3.NBT1 Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.
Possible Activities:
Round Up or Down?
Round to the Nearest Ten
Round to the Nearest 100
3.NBT2 Fluently
add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between
addition and subtraction.
Possible Activities:
3 Digit Addition Split
Doubling to 1000
Difference Add
3.NBT3 Multiply onedigit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the
range 1090 (e.g., 9x80, 5x60) using strategies based on place value
and properties of operations.
Possible Activities:
Multiples of Ten Multiply
Multiply by Multiples of 10 Problems
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers
3.NF1 Understand
a fraction 1/b as a quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is portioned
into b equal parts: understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by
a parts of size 1/b.
3.NF2 Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram. a.
Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the
interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and portioning it into b equal parts.
Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part
based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.
Possible Activities:
Fraction Strips
Make Your Own Fraction Strips
Number Line Roll
b.
Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a
lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b
and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.
Possible Activities:
Fraction Number Lines
3.NF3 Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. a. Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.
Possible Activities:
Pizza for Dinner
Build a Hexagon
b. Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions e.g.., ½ = 2/4,
4/6=2/3) Explain why the fractions are equivalent, by using a visual
model.
Possible Activities:
Exploring Equivalent Fractions
Creating Equivalent Fractions
Cuisenaire Equivalent Fractions
c.
Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are
equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3=3/1;
recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number
line diagram
Make One
d. Compare two fractions with the same numerator or
the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that
comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same
whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or
< and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction
model.
Possible Activities:
Who Ate More?
Compare and Order