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Baroody (2006) describes basic fact fluency as "the efficient, appropriate, and flexible application of singledigit calculation skills and ... an essential aspect of mathematical proficiency" (p.22). This definition is reflected in the CCSSM grade level expectations related to basic facts. By the end of Kindergarten students are expected to demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction within five (K.OA.5). Fluency with addition and subtraction within 10 is required in 1st grade (1.OA.6), while by the end of Grade 2 students are required to know from memory all sums of two onedigit numbers (2.OA.2). Research shows that the most effective way for students to learn the basic facts is to arrange the facts into clusters (Fuson, 2003). Our website provides numerous games and math center activities to build fluency and foster discussion around strategies. Section 1 (85 pages) focuses on developing efficient strategies for learning and internalizing single digit addition and subtraction facts within 20, with a strong emphasis on clusters described in the first grade standards, namely count on, use doubles and make a ten. *Updated February 2015  Now includes 170 pages 1. Count On Cover Up (within 5) 

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