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#### K-2 Addition and Subtraction Strategies

 Baroody (2006) describes basic fact fluency as "the efficient, appropriate, and flexible application of single-digit calculation skills and ... an essential aspect of mathematical proficiency" (p.22). This definition is reflected in the CCSSM grade level expectations related to basic facts. By the end of Kindergarten students are expected to demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction within five (K.OA.5).  Fluency with addition and subtraction within 10 is required in 1st grade (1.OA.6), while by the end of Grade 2 students are required to know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers (2.OA.2).Research shows that the most effective way for students to learn the basic facts is to arrange the facts into clusters (Fuson, 2003). Our website provides numerous games and math center activities to build fluency and foster discussion around strategies. K-2 Addition and Subtraction Strategies provides opportunities for paper and pencil practice to further develop a framework of mental strategies on which more advanced thinking techniques can be built. Intended for use after students have opportunities to explore these mental strategies using concrete materials, these materials are ideally suited for small group instruction, independent practice, homework, or assessment purposes.Section 1 (85 pages) focuses on developing efficient strategies for learning and internalizing single digit addition and subtraction facts within 20, with a strong emphasis on clusters described in the first grade standards, namely count on, use doubles and make a ten. Section 2 (81 pages) focuses on more advanced addition and subtraction strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and the relationship between addition and subtraction. This section takes students beyond the basic facts and allow them to see how previously learned mental strategies can be used to compute problems with two and three digit numbers.Bonus! - Buy now and in addition to the 170 page eBook receive the following math centers aligned with the count on, use doubles and make a ten clusters: 1. Count On Cover Up (within 5)2. Count On Cover Up (within 10)3. Make a Ten Cover Up (versions 1 and 2)4. Make a Ten (versions 1-3)5. Think Addition for Subtraction (versions 1-4)6. Addition Fact Sort (versions 1-3)7. Subtraction Fact Sort (versions 1-3)

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