Baroody (2006) describes basic fact fluency as "the efficient, appropriate, and flexible application of single-digit calculation skills and ... an essential aspect of mathematical proficiency". This definition is reflected in the CCSSM grade level expectations related to basic facts. By the end of Kindergarten students are expected to demonstrate fluency with addition and subtraction within five (K.OA.5). Fluency with addition and subtraction within 10 is required in 1st grade (1.OA.6), while by the end of Grade 2 students are required to know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers (2.OA.2).
Research shows that the most effective way for students to develop fluency with the basic facts is to arrange the facts into clusters (Fuson, 2003).
K-2 Addition and Subtraction Strategies provides opportunities for students to develop a framework of mental strategies on which more advanced thinking techniques can be built. Ideally suited for small group instruction, independent practice, homework, or assessment purposes this eBook contains over 170 pages of pencil and paper practice, as well as 35 math centers to develop fact fluency.
Section 1 focuses on developing efficient strategies for learning and internalizing single digit addition and subtraction facts within 20, with a strong emphasis on the three major clusters for addition and subtraction basic facts, namely count on, use doubles and make a ten.
Section 2 focuses on more advanced addition and subtraction strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and the relationship between addition and subtraction. This section takes students beyond the basic facts and allow them to see how previously learned mental strategies can be used to compute problems with two and three digit numbers.
Section 3 includes 35 ready to print math centers focused on the three major clusters for addition and subtraction basic facts: count on, use doubles and make a ten.