
Stage A: These children are just
beginning to understand the concepts of putting small collections
together, or taking a small amount from a collection. They are not yet
successful in finding sums or differences.
Next Steps:
 Successfully put two small collections together and find
the sum
 Find the difference after taking a small amount from a
collection
POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES:
Addition Plate
Bears in the Cave
Show One Less
Domino Addition
Addition Bag
Make 5 on the Five Frame
Shake 5 and Spill
Towers of Five
Hide the Cubes
Stage B: These children can successfully put two small collections together and find the sum. They can also find the difference after taking a small amount from a collection. They need to fully model, and count from one by ones to find their answers.
Next Steps:
 Begin to use ‘shortcuts’ to add two small collections, or to take a small amount from a collection (e.g.count on to find a sum, or count back, count down to, or count up from to find a difference)
POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES
Count On One (ver. 1)
Count On One (ver. 2)
Count On Two (ver. 1)
Count On Three (ver. 1)
Minus One
Stage C: These children are beginning to use shortcuts to add two small collections, or to take a small amount from a collection. They only need part of a model, and either count on to find a sum, or count back, count down to, or count up from to find a difference.
Next Steps:
 Begin to use 'simpler' thinking strategies to add and subtract (adding one or zero, using doubles, turning around the addends, sums to ten, or adding ten)
POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES
Fast Five
Make Five
Doubles Cover Up (ver. 2)
Find Ten
Towers of Ten
Make 10 on the Ten Frame (ver. 1)
Sum Search
Four in a Row Subtraction
Part Part Whole Cards
Turn Around Dominoes
Turn Around Trains
Ten More
Add To: Result Unknown Problems (within 10)
Both Addends Unknown Problems (within 10)
Stage D: These children are able to add and subtract small amounts using 'simpler' thinking strategies (adding one or zero, using doubles, ‘turning around’ the addends, sums to ten, adding ten). They are able to mentally add and subtract small numbers without making a model.
Next Steps:
 Use later thinking strategies (fact families, extending to larger numbers, near doubles, make to ten, adding nine).
POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES
Making Ten (ver. 1)
Four in a Row with Near Doubles (ver. 1)
11 More
Subtract Ten
Race Around 10 (ver. 1)
Add to: Change Unknown Word Problems (within 20)
Take From: Change Unknown Word Problems (within 20)
Bunk Bed Problem
Double Decker Bus Problem
3x3 Magic Square
Stage E: These children are able to extend their thinking strategies to include larger numbers, and more difficult calculations with small numbers. They add and subtract mentally, using thinking strategies such as fact families, ‘near doubles’, build to ten, and adding nine.
POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES
Subtract Multiples of Ten
2Digit Addition Trains (ver. 1)
Base Ten Bag: Addition
Base Ten Pictures
2Digit Addition Split
3Digit Addition Split
Add To: Result Unknown (within 100)
Take From: Result Unknown (within 100)
Magic Squares
4x4 Magic Square
5x5 Magic Square
Magic Star Puzzle